## Frequently Asked Questions

Incompressible fluids are those whose density remains constant and does not change with pressure. This calculator is based on Bernoulli’s Equation, which assumes the fluid is incompressible, meaning the density remains constant throughout the flow. As a result, this calculator is not suitable for fluids that experience significant changes in density under varying pressure conditions.

Typically, this calculator should not be used for gases, as they are compressible and their density can change significantly with pressure. Bernoulli’s Equation and the related calculations are designed for incompressible fluids, which are generally liquids. Using this calculator for gases could lead to inaccurate results.

Mass flow rate refers to the amount of mass passing through a specific point per unit of time, usually measured in kilograms per second (kg/s). Volume flow rate, on the other hand, refers to the amount of volume passing through a specific point per unit of time, usually measured in cubic meters per second (m³/s) or liters per second (L/s). Mass flow rate depends on both the volume flow rate and the density of the fluid, while the volume flow rate is independent of the fluid’s density.

Several factors affect the flow rate of a fluid in a pipe, including the fluid’s density, viscosity, pipe diameter, pipe length, flow velocity, and pressure differences between the two ends of the pipe. Additionally, factors like pipe roughness, bends, and fittings in the pipe can also influence the flow rate due to their effects on pressure loss.

Bernoulli’s Equation is a fundamental principle in fluid dynamics that describes the behavior of a moving fluid in terms of its energy conservation. It relates the fluid’s pressure, kinetic energy, and potential energy along a streamline. The equation is widely used in various engineering and scientific applications, such as flow measurement, fluid system design, and analysis of fluid behavior in pipes, channels, and other fluid systems.

Enter the fluid density, speed, and pipe diameter into the calculator below to determine the fluid's mass and volume flow rates. This calculator is only for use in which there is a steady flow of an incompressible fluid.

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## Bernoulli Equation Formula

The following formula is formulated through Bernoulli's principles of incompressible fluids.

p + 0.5ρv² + ρhg = c

- Where p is the pressure
- ρ is the density of the fluid
- v is the flow speed of the fluid
- h is the height
- g is the acceleration due to gravity
- c is a constant

From this formula, the following two equations can be derived for determining a fluid's volume and mass flow rates.

q = π * (d/2)² * v * 3600

m = q * ρ

- Where q is the volumetric flow rate
- d is the diameter of the pipe
- v is the velocity of the fluid
- and ρ is the density of the fluid

## Bernoulli Equation Definition

Bernoulli's Equation states that an increase in the speed of a moving fluid is accompanied by a decrease in static pressure.