Enter the warp density and the weft density into the calculator to determine the overall fabric density.

Fabric Density Formula

The following equation is used to calculate the Fabric Density.

FD = Dwarp * Dweft

  • Where FD is the fabric density
  • Dwarp is the warp density
  • Dweft is the weft density

The density of the warp and weft are defined is the amount of yarn per inch of fabric.

Fabric density is also sometimes mentioned as the weight per unit area of fabric. To explore this further, visit the GSM calculator linked above.

What is a Fabric Density?


Fabric density indicates the number of warp yarns and weft yarns in 1 inch2. When talking about fabric density, you may also hear it referred to as thread count.

The higher the fabric density the finer the fabric will be. Fabrics with a low thread count are coarser and offer less protection than those with a high thread count.

Fabrics need to have enough threads or yarns in them to be strong enough for their intended use. Below is a chart showing common fabric densities/thread counts ranging from coarse to fine fabrics.

Fabric density also affects the weight and thickness of a material. When you measure cloth by weight, it is usually determined by its yardage and not by its size.

For example, two pieces of cloth measuring 2 yards each will usually be heavier than one piece of cloth measuring 4 yards because they have more threads per square inch. In addition, fabrics with low density are generally thinner than those with higher density. This is because fabrics with lower density have less loom waste per inch, resulting in a lighter gauge or thread count per inch2 (threads per square inch).

The fabric density is critical because it determines how much space is between warp and weft threads. It also determines how much “open space” there is in a material which can affect draping, body, and breathability characteristics.