Enter the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms into the calculator to determine the percent ionic character in the chemical bond; this calculator can also evaluate the difference in electronegativity given the percent ionic character.

## Percent Ionic Character Formula

The following formula is used to calculate the percent ionic character in a chemical bond:

P Ionic Character = (1 - e^{(-2.8 * (ΔEN)^2)}) * 100

Variables:

• % Ionic Character is the percent ionic character in the chemical bond
• ΔEN is the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms in the bond

To calculate the percent ionic character, first, calculate the square of the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms. Multiply the result by -2.8. Raise the constant e (approximately 2.71828) to the power of the previous result. Subtract the result from 1. Finally, multiply the result by 100 to get the percent ionic character.

## What is a Percent Ionic Character?

Percent ionic character is a measure of the degree of ionicity of a chemical bond. It is a concept used in chemistry to describe how ionic a bond is, or the degree to which the bonding electrons are evenly shared between the atoms in the bond. In a purely ionic bond, one atom completely transfers one or more electrons to the other atom. In a purely covalent bond, the electrons are shared equally between the atoms. However, most bonds fall somewhere in between these two extremes. The percent ionic character is calculated based on the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms involved in the bond. The greater the difference in electronegativity, the higher the percent ionic character, and the more ionic the bond is. This concept is important in understanding the properties of molecules, such as their polarity, reactivity, and the types of reactions they undergo.

## How to Calculate Percent Ionic Character?

The following steps outline how to calculate the Percent Ionic Character:

1. First, determine the electronegativity values of the atoms involved in the bond.
2. Next, subtract the smaller electronegativity value from the larger electronegativity value.
3. Divide the difference obtained in step 2 by the sum of the electronegativity values.
4. Multiply the result from step 3 by 100 to get the percent ionic character.
5. Finally, interpret the percent ionic character obtained. If the value is close to 0%, the bond is considered purely covalent. If the value is close to 100%, the bond is considered purely ionic.

Example Problem:

Use the following variables as an example problem to test your knowledge:

Electronegativity value of atom A = 2.1

Electronegativity value of atom B = 3.0