Enter the number of essentials for an item and the number of experts into the Calculator. The calculator will evaluate the Content Validity Ratio. 

Content Validity Ratio Formula

CVR = (Ne - (N/2))/ (N/2)


  • CVR is the Content Validity Ratio ()
  • Ne is the number of essentials for an item
  • N is the number of experts

To calculate the Content Validity Ratio, subtract half the number of experts from the number of essentials for an item, then divide by half the number of experts.

How to Calculate Content Validity Ratio?

The following steps outline how to calculate the Content Validity Ratio.

  1. First, determine the number of essentials for an item. 
  2. Next, determine the number of experts. 
  3. Next, gather the formula from above = CVR = (Ne – (N/2))/ (N/2).
  4. Finally, calculate the Content Validity Ratio.
  5. After inserting the variables and calculating the result, check your answer with the calculator above.

Example Problem : 

Use the following variables as an example problem to test your knowledge.

number of essentials for an item = 5

number of experts = 2

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What is the purpose of calculating the Content Validity Ratio (CVR)?

The purpose of calculating the Content Validity Ratio is to assess the relevance and essentiality of test items or survey questions in a quantitative manner. It helps in determining whether the items are considered essential, useful, but not essential, or not necessary by a panel of experts, thus ensuring the content validity of the instrument being developed or evaluated.

How do you interpret the results of the Content Validity Ratio?

The CVR value ranges from -1 to 1. A positive CVR indicates that more than half of the experts agree on the essentiality of the item. The closer the CVR is to 1, the stronger the agreement among the experts that the item is essential. A CVR of 0 or negative suggests that the item does not have sufficient agreement to be considered essential and may need to be revised or removed.

Can the Content Validity Ratio be used for all types of content?

While the Content Validity Ratio is a powerful tool for assessing the validity of items in tests, surveys, and questionnaires, its applicability may vary depending on the type of content and the context in which it is being used. It is most effective when there is a clear definition of what constitutes “essential” content and when there is a panel of experts with the knowledge and expertise to evaluate the content accurately.

What are the limitations of using the Content Validity Ratio?

One limitation of using the CVR is that it relies heavily on the judgment of experts, which can introduce subjectivity into the evaluation process. Additionally, if the panel of experts is not diverse or does not have a comprehensive understanding of the domain, the results may not accurately reflect the content’s validity. Furthermore, the CVR does not provide information on other aspects of validity, such as construct validity or reliability, so it should be used as part of a comprehensive evaluation strategy.